The effect of frontpacks, shoulder bags and handheld bags on 3D back shape and posture in young university students: an ISIS2 study

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10149/235451
Title:
The effect of frontpacks, shoulder bags and handheld bags on 3D back shape and posture in young university students: an ISIS2 study
Book Title:
Research into spinal deformities 8
Authors:
Bettany-Saltikov, J. A. (Josette); Cole, L.
Editors:
Kotwiki, T. (Tomasz); Grivas, T. B. (Theodoros)
Affiliation:
Teesside University
Citation:
Bettany-Saltikov, J.A. and Cole, L. (2012) 'The effect of frontpacks, shoulder bags and handheld bags on 3D back shape and posture in young university students: an ISIS2 study', Kotwiki, T. and Grivas, T.B. (eds.) Research into spinal deformities 8, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 176. Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Publisher:
IOS Press
Issue Date:
2012
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10149/235451
DOI:
10.3233/978-1-61499-067-3-117
PubMed ID:
22744472
Abstract:
Background: Students at school and university settings have been shown to carry heavy loads in a variety of pack systems. Both type and mode of load carriage have been shown to cause significant postural adaptations that can lead to injuries in the shoulder, arms, hands and back. Whilst backpacks have been well researched, there is a paucity of literature on the effects of frontpacks, shoulder bags and hand-held bags on 3D posture and back shape. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carrying three different types of bag (shoulder, front and handheld), each containing a load of 15% body weight. Materials: The Integrated Shape Imaging System 2 (ISIS 2) was used to evaluate 3 D back shape and posture. Participants: The study involved twenty-five university students. A repeated measures design was used to record the effects of four conditions using no load (reference), a frontpack, a shoulder bag and a handheld bag. Measurements with ISIS 2 were taken 5 minutes post loading. All of the conditions were randomised in an attempt to offset any order effects. Results showed an increase in extension and lumber lordosis angles for the front bag (P<0.001) and an increase in flexion and reduced lumber lordosis in the shoulder and hand held bags (p<0.05). Kyphosis curves were also significantly increased in the hand held bag (p<0.006). Right unilateral load carriage also demonstrated the greatest right volumetric asymmetry. Discussion: Bilateral front carriage as supported by previous literature produces a symmetrical shift away from the load. Unilateral carriage however produces an asymmetrical deviation away from the load which results in significant postural deviations and adaptations. Conclusion: Frontbags may be more suitable for load carriage within the young adult student population as they produce a symmetrical postural deviation in one plane in response to load. The shoulder and handheld bags produce postural deviations in all planes which may cause adverse stress and strain on spinal structures and ultimately lead to pain and progressive postural scoliosis.
Type:
Book Chapter
Language:
en
Keywords:
students; higher education; scoliosis; posture
Series/Report no.:
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics; 176
ISSN:
0926-9630
ISBN:
9781614990666; 9781614990673
Rights:
Author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing). For full details see http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ [Accessed 24/07/2012].
Citation Count:
0 [WOS, 24/07/2012]

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorBettany-Saltikov, J. A. (Josette)en_GB
dc.contributor.authorCole, L.en_GB
dc.contributor.editorKotwiki, T. (Tomasz)en_GB
dc.contributor.editorGrivas, T. B. (Theodoros)en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2012-07-24T11:07:18Z-
dc.date.available2012-07-24T11:07:18Z-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.identifier.citationStudies in Health Technology and Informatics; 176: 117-121en_GB
dc.identifier.isbn9781614990666-
dc.identifier.isbn9781614990673-
dc.identifier.issn0926-9630-
dc.identifier.pmid22744472-
dc.identifier.doi10.3233/978-1-61499-067-3-117-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10149/235451-
dc.description.abstractBackground: Students at school and university settings have been shown to carry heavy loads in a variety of pack systems. Both type and mode of load carriage have been shown to cause significant postural adaptations that can lead to injuries in the shoulder, arms, hands and back. Whilst backpacks have been well researched, there is a paucity of literature on the effects of frontpacks, shoulder bags and hand-held bags on 3D posture and back shape. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of carrying three different types of bag (shoulder, front and handheld), each containing a load of 15% body weight. Materials: The Integrated Shape Imaging System 2 (ISIS 2) was used to evaluate 3 D back shape and posture. Participants: The study involved twenty-five university students. A repeated measures design was used to record the effects of four conditions using no load (reference), a frontpack, a shoulder bag and a handheld bag. Measurements with ISIS 2 were taken 5 minutes post loading. All of the conditions were randomised in an attempt to offset any order effects. Results showed an increase in extension and lumber lordosis angles for the front bag (P<0.001) and an increase in flexion and reduced lumber lordosis in the shoulder and hand held bags (p<0.05). Kyphosis curves were also significantly increased in the hand held bag (p<0.006). Right unilateral load carriage also demonstrated the greatest right volumetric asymmetry. Discussion: Bilateral front carriage as supported by previous literature produces a symmetrical shift away from the load. Unilateral carriage however produces an asymmetrical deviation away from the load which results in significant postural deviations and adaptations. Conclusion: Frontbags may be more suitable for load carriage within the young adult student population as they produce a symmetrical postural deviation in one plane in response to load. The shoulder and handheld bags produce postural deviations in all planes which may cause adverse stress and strain on spinal structures and ultimately lead to pain and progressive postural scoliosis.en_GB
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherIOS Pressen_GB
dc.relation.ispartofseriesStudies in Health Technology and Informaticsen_GB
dc.relation.ispartofseries176en_GB
dc.rightsAuthor can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing). For full details see http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ [Accessed 24/07/2012].en_GB
dc.subjectstudentsen_GB
dc.subjecthigher educationen_GB
dc.subjectscoliosisen_GB
dc.subjectpostureen_GB
dc.titleThe effect of frontpacks, shoulder bags and handheld bags on 3D back shape and posture in young university students: an ISIS2 studyen
dc.typeBook Chapteren
dc.contributor.departmentTeesside Universityen_GB
dc.title.bookResearch into spinal deformities 8en_GB
ref.citationcount0 [WOS, 24/07/2012]en_GB
or.citation.harvardBettany-Saltikov, J.A. and Cole, L. (2012) 'The effect of frontpacks, shoulder bags and handheld bags on 3D back shape and posture in young university students: an ISIS2 study', Kotwiki, T. and Grivas, T.B. (eds.) Research into spinal deformities 8, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 176. Amsterdam: IOS Press.en_GB

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