Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10149/58233
Title:
Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review
Authors:
Hooper, L. (Lee); Thompson, R. L. (Rachel); Harrison, R. A. (Roger); Summerbell, C. D. (Carolyn); Ness, A. R. (Andy); Moore, H. J. (Helen); Worthington, H. V. (Helen); Durrington, P. N. (Paul); Higgins, J. P. T. (Julian); Capps, N. E. (Nigel); Riemersma, R. A (Rudolph); Ebrahim, S. B. J. (Shah); Smith, G. D. (George)
Affiliation:
University of East Anglia. School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice; University of Southampton. Institute of Human Nutrition; Bolton Primary Care Trust; University of Teesside. School of Health and Social Care; University of Bristol. Department of Community-based Medicine; University of Bristol. Department of Social Medicine; University of Manchester. School of Dentistry; University of Manchester. Department of Medicine; MRC Biostatistics Unit. Cambridge; Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust. Princess Royal Hospital. Department of Clinical Biochemistry; University of Edinburgh. Centre for Cardiovascular Science; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Department of Epidemiology and Population Health.
Citation:
Hooper, L. et al. (2006) 'Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review', BMJ, 332 (7544), pp.752-755.
Publisher:
BMJ Publishing Group
Journal:
BMJ
Issue Date:
24-Apr-2006
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10149/58233
DOI:
10.1136/bmj.38755.366331.2F
Abstract:
Objective: To review systematically the evidence for an effect of long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fatty acids on total mortality, cardiovascular events, and cancer. Data sources: Electronic databases searched to February 2002; authors contacted and bibliographies of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) checked to locate studies. Review methods: Review of RCTs of omega 3 intake for 3 6 months in adults (with or without risk factors for cardiovascular disease) with data on a relevant outcome. Cohort studies that estimated omega 3 intake and related this to clinical outcome during at least 6 months were also included. Application of inclusion criteria, data extraction, and quality assessments were performed independently in duplicate. Results: Of 15,159 titles and abstracts assessed, 48 RCTs (36,913 participants) and 41 cohort studies were analysed. The trial results were inconsistent. The pooled estimate showed no strong evidence of reduced risk of total mortality (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.03) or combined cardiovascular events (0.95, 0.82 to 1.12) in participants taking additional omega 3 fats. The few studies at low risk of bias were more consistent, but they showed no effect of omega 3 on total mortality (0.98, 0.70 to 1.36) or cardiovascular events (1.09, 0.87 to 1.37). When data from the subgroup of studies of long chain omega 3 fats were analysed separately, total mortality (0.86, 0.70 to 1.04; 138 events) and cardiovascular events (0.93, 0.79 to 1.11) were not clearly reduced. Neither RCTs nor cohort studies suggested increased risk of cancer with a higher intake of omega 3 (trials: 1.07, 0.88 to 1.30; cohort studies: 1.02, 0.87 to 1.19), but clinically important harm could not be excluded. Conclusion: Long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fats do not have a clear effect on total mortality, combined cardiovascular events, or cancer.
Type:
Article
Keywords:
risks; benefits; omega 3 fats; mortality; cardiovascular disease; cancer
ISSN:
1468-5833
Rights:
Author can archive publisher's version/PDF. For full details see http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ [Accessed 13/01/2010]
Citation Count:
208 [Scopus, 13/01/2010]

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorHooper, L. (Lee)-
dc.contributor.authorThompson, R. L. (Rachel)-
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, R. A. (Roger)-
dc.contributor.authorSummerbell, C. D. (Carolyn)-
dc.contributor.authorNess, A. R. (Andy)-
dc.contributor.authorMoore, H. J. (Helen)-
dc.contributor.authorWorthington, H. V. (Helen)-
dc.contributor.authorDurrington, P. N. (Paul)-
dc.contributor.authorHiggins, J. P. T. (Julian)-
dc.contributor.authorCapps, N. E. (Nigel)-
dc.contributor.authorRiemersma, R. A (Rudolph)-
dc.contributor.authorEbrahim, S. B. J. (Shah)-
dc.contributor.authorSmith, G. D. (George)-
dc.date.accessioned2009-04-01T10:46:40Z-
dc.date.available2009-04-01T10:46:40Z-
dc.date.issued2006-04-24-
dc.identifier.citationBMJ; 332 (7544): 752-755-
dc.identifier.issn1468-5833-
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/bmj.38755.366331.2F-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10149/58233-
dc.description.abstractObjective: To review systematically the evidence for an effect of long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fatty acids on total mortality, cardiovascular events, and cancer. Data sources: Electronic databases searched to February 2002; authors contacted and bibliographies of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) checked to locate studies. Review methods: Review of RCTs of omega 3 intake for 3 6 months in adults (with or without risk factors for cardiovascular disease) with data on a relevant outcome. Cohort studies that estimated omega 3 intake and related this to clinical outcome during at least 6 months were also included. Application of inclusion criteria, data extraction, and quality assessments were performed independently in duplicate. Results: Of 15,159 titles and abstracts assessed, 48 RCTs (36,913 participants) and 41 cohort studies were analysed. The trial results were inconsistent. The pooled estimate showed no strong evidence of reduced risk of total mortality (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.03) or combined cardiovascular events (0.95, 0.82 to 1.12) in participants taking additional omega 3 fats. The few studies at low risk of bias were more consistent, but they showed no effect of omega 3 on total mortality (0.98, 0.70 to 1.36) or cardiovascular events (1.09, 0.87 to 1.37). When data from the subgroup of studies of long chain omega 3 fats were analysed separately, total mortality (0.86, 0.70 to 1.04; 138 events) and cardiovascular events (0.93, 0.79 to 1.11) were not clearly reduced. Neither RCTs nor cohort studies suggested increased risk of cancer with a higher intake of omega 3 (trials: 1.07, 0.88 to 1.30; cohort studies: 1.02, 0.87 to 1.19), but clinically important harm could not be excluded. Conclusion: Long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fats do not have a clear effect on total mortality, combined cardiovascular events, or cancer.-
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group-
dc.rightsAuthor can archive publisher's version/PDF. For full details see http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/ [Accessed 13/01/2010]-
dc.subjectrisks-
dc.subjectbenefits-
dc.subjectomega 3 fats-
dc.subjectmortality-
dc.subjectcardiovascular disease-
dc.subjectcancer-
dc.titleRisks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of East Anglia. School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice; University of Southampton. Institute of Human Nutrition; Bolton Primary Care Trust; University of Teesside. School of Health and Social Care; University of Bristol. Department of Community-based Medicine; University of Bristol. Department of Social Medicine; University of Manchester. School of Dentistry; University of Manchester. Department of Medicine; MRC Biostatistics Unit. Cambridge; Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust. Princess Royal Hospital. Department of Clinical Biochemistry; University of Edinburgh. Centre for Cardiovascular Science; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Department of Epidemiology and Population Health.-
dc.identifier.journalBMJ-
ref.assessmentRAE 2008-
ref.citationcount208 [Scopus, 13/01/2010]-
or.citation.harvardHooper, L. et al. (2006) 'Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review', BMJ, 332 (7544), pp.752-755.-
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