Progress toward construct validation of the sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ)

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10149/92614
Title:
Progress toward construct validation of the sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ)
Authors:
Sheard, M. (Michael); Golby, J. (Jim); van Wersch, A. (Anna)
Affiliation:
University of Teesside
Citation:
Sheard, M., Golby, J. and van Wersch, A. (2009) 'Progress toward construct validation of the sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ)', European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25 (3), pp.184-191.
Publisher:
Hogrefe Publishers
Journal:
European Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue Date:
2009
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10149/92614
DOI:
10.1027/1015-5759.25.3.186
Abstract:
This study examines the construct validity of an original self-report instrument for the assessment of mental toughness: the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ). Two independent studies supported a three-factor (Confidence, Constancy, and Control) 14-item model for the SMTQ. With a sample of 633 athletes (427 males, 206 females; M age = 21.5 years; SD = 5.48), drawn from 25 sport classifications, and competing at international, national, county and provincial, or club and regional standards, the first study utilized item development and exploratory factor analytic techniques to establish the psychometric properties of the SMTQ. Study 2 employed confirmatory factor analytic techniques with an independent sample of 509 sports performers (351 males, 158 females; M age = 20.2 years; SD = 3.35), competing at the aforementioned standards, and representative of 26 sports. Confirmatory analysis using structural equation modeling confirmed the overall structure. A single factor underlying mental toughness (Gmt) was identified with higher-order exploratory factor analysis using the Schmid-Leiman procedure. Collectively, satisfying absolute and incremental fit-index benchmarks, the inventory was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, with adequate reliability, divergent validity, and discriminative power. The results revealed promising features of the SMTQ, lending preliminary support to the instrument's factorial validity and reliability. Further construct validation of the SMTQ is recommended, including its use as an index for evaluating the effect of intervention programs.
Type:
Article
Language:
en
Keywords:
sports mental toughness questionnaire; SMTQ; confirmatory factor analysis; mental toughness; principal axis factoring analysis; Schmid-Leiman
ISSN:
1015-5759
Rights:
Author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing). [Email from Hogrefe Publishers]
Citation Count:
1 [Scopus, 22/02/2010]

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSheard, M. (Michael)en
dc.contributor.authorGolby, J. (Jim)en
dc.contributor.authorvan Wersch, A. (Anna)en
dc.date.accessioned2010-02-22T10:08:40Z-
dc.date.available2010-02-22T10:08:40Z-
dc.date.issued2009-
dc.identifier.citationEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment; 25 (3): 184-191en
dc.identifier.issn1015-5759-
dc.identifier.doi10.1027/1015-5759.25.3.186-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10149/92614-
dc.description.abstractThis study examines the construct validity of an original self-report instrument for the assessment of mental toughness: the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ). Two independent studies supported a three-factor (Confidence, Constancy, and Control) 14-item model for the SMTQ. With a sample of 633 athletes (427 males, 206 females; M age = 21.5 years; SD = 5.48), drawn from 25 sport classifications, and competing at international, national, county and provincial, or club and regional standards, the first study utilized item development and exploratory factor analytic techniques to establish the psychometric properties of the SMTQ. Study 2 employed confirmatory factor analytic techniques with an independent sample of 509 sports performers (351 males, 158 females; M age = 20.2 years; SD = 3.35), competing at the aforementioned standards, and representative of 26 sports. Confirmatory analysis using structural equation modeling confirmed the overall structure. A single factor underlying mental toughness (Gmt) was identified with higher-order exploratory factor analysis using the Schmid-Leiman procedure. Collectively, satisfying absolute and incremental fit-index benchmarks, the inventory was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, with adequate reliability, divergent validity, and discriminative power. The results revealed promising features of the SMTQ, lending preliminary support to the instrument's factorial validity and reliability. Further construct validation of the SMTQ is recommended, including its use as an index for evaluating the effect of intervention programs.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherHogrefe Publishersen
dc.rightsAuthor can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing). [Email from Hogrefe Publishers]en
dc.subjectsports mental toughness questionnaireen
dc.subjectSMTQen
dc.subjectconfirmatory factor analysisen
dc.subjectmental toughnessen
dc.subjectprincipal axis factoring analysisen
dc.subjectSchmid-Leimanen
dc.titleProgress toward construct validation of the sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ)en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Teessideen
dc.identifier.journalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessmenten
ref.citationcount1 [Scopus, 22/02/2010]en
or.citation.harvardSheard, M., Golby, J. and van Wersch, A. (2009) 'Progress toward construct validation of the sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ)', European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25 (3), pp.184-191.-
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